Energy & Environment

Energy Balance Sheets:
Source: Ministry of Energy

Note: Key definitions and concepts are explained at the end of this page.

  • Quantity and value of national petrochemical company’s exports by main categories: 1375-1385 (1996-2006)
  • Crude oil production capacity: 1370-1385 (1991-2006)
  • Oil Production and Exports (2000 – 2016, quarterly)

» Oil Production and Exports (2000 Q2 to 2016 Q3)

  • Capacity of domestic oil refineries: 1370-1385 (1991-2006)
  • Direct export of crude oil and oil products: 1370-1385 (1991-2006)
  • Average products of refineries: 1370-1385 (1991-2006)
  • Average oil products by refinery: 1370-1385 (1991-2006)
  • Consumption of oil products: 1370-1385 (1991-2006)
  • Consumption of major oil products by province: 1384 (2005)
  • Import of oil products by type: 1370-1385 (1991-2005)
  • Transportation of oil products by means of transport: 1370-1385 (1991-2006)
  • Production of enriched gas by source of production: 1370-1385 (1991-2006)
  • Production of sweet gas by source of production: 1370-1385 (1991-2006)
  • Consumption of natural gas: 1370-1385 (1991-2006)
  • Cities supplied or being supplied with piped gas at the end of the year: 1380-1385 (2001-2006)
  • Types of gas extensions at the end of the year: 1370-1385 (1991-2006)
  • Natural gas consumers by type at the end of the year: 1370-1385 (1991-2006)
  • Liquified gas delivered by refineries for distribution: 1370-1385 (1991-2006)
  • Total production of national petrochemical company by main categories: 1375-1385 (1996-2006)
  • Quantity and value of NPC’s domestic sales by main categories: 1375-1385 (1996-2006)

Definitions and Concepts

Crude oil : a mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in a liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs. Crude petroleum mainly consists of saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons and some aromatic materials. In addition to hydrogen and carbon that are the main constituents of oil, it contains nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, nickel, sodium, vanadium and iron as well. As a result of the changes in the amount of these elements, crude oil is much diversified physically and chemically.

Burning oil:  consisting of paraffin, petroleum and aromatic hydrocarbons, this product is used as heating and thermal power generation fuel and is one of the main constituents of jet fuel.

Fuel oil:  a residual substance obtained from the distillation of crude oil in refineries. Because of its heavy hydrocarbon content, this product does not burn easily. It is one of the main fuels for ships and large manufacturing establishments including power generation plants.

Gas oil:obtained  from the separation of burning oil from crude petroleum, this product is used as fuel for agricultural and industrial machinery and public transport vehicles and for thermal installations.

Motor spirit: a mixture of isomerized and circular hydrocarbons with different concentrations, to which certain organic compounds are added  for easy burning.

Jet fuel: is used as engines fuel for fighter and passenger aircrafts. It is produced in different types in terms of mixture of high quality burning oil and other light oil products with some additives to prevent rusting, reduce the risk of icing, etc. In international standards, it is known as JP4 and ATK.

Natural gas (enriched gas): gas obtained from oil and gas reservoirs, available as associated gas (such as gas extracted from Aghajari gas field), non-associated gas (such as Sarakhs and Sarkhun gas) or gas cap gas.

Sweet gas: enriched (natural) gas obtained from further refining, that is, separation of liquids and gaseous impurities from enriched gas.

Liquefied gas:a mixture of normal butane and propane, the proportion of which changes under environmental conditions and utilization and becomes liquid under a pressure of 100-110 pounds on square inch.

Gas injection: gas and/or water injected into oil reservoir for optimum utilization and preservation of resources.

Gas customer:the natural or legal person whose characteristics have been registered and who has been given a customer number after their submission of required documents and payment of related costs based on formal procedure for admission of natural gas applicant.

Gas consumer: the person who consumes gas after subscription and operations of gas supply.

Gas extension: the lines which have been extended from transmission, feeding and network lines into the customer’s private station.

Polymer: refers to heavy molecules with high carbon made out  of molecules with low carbon in  compositions of unsaturated paraffin hydrocarbons. Types of polymer include:

(a) Major: polyethylenes, PVC, polypropylene, polystyrene, melamine crystal, polyester (PET) and ABS.

(b) Engineering: polycarbonate, and epoxy.

(c) Rubbers: styrene-butadiene, polybutadiene, rubber.


(a) Basics includeethylene, propylene, methanol, butadiene, C4 cut, butene-1.

(b) Intermediates include ethylene oxide, ethylene glycols, acetic acid, vinyl acetate, EDC, VCM, ethanol amine, 2-ethyl-hexanol and butanols.

(c) Minerals include light and dense sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, argon, perchlorin hydrochloric acid, chlorine (liquid), caustic soda, sodium hypochlorite, ammonium nitrate (explosive).

Aromatics: are unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons consisting of one or more benzene rings ( a six–carbon ring with three double bonds). Aromatics include benzene,  toluene,  mixed  xylenes, p-xylene, o-xylene, ethyl benzene, monomer styrene and PTA.

Hydrocarbons: include propane, butane, pentane plus, pentane, pyrolysis gasoline, C4 raffinate, C6 raffinate, CFO, MTBE.

Fertilizers, pesticides and related materials 

(a)    Fertilizers include urea, ammonium nitrate, diammonium phosphate, ammonium sulphate.

(b)    Pesticides include alachlor, butachlor.

(c)    Related materials include ammonia, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid, sulphur, chloroacetyl chloride.