Sociology of the Village in Iran [Jame’e Shenasi-e Deh dar Iran]

Khosro Khosravi. Sociology of the Village in Iran [Jame’e Shenasi-e Deh dar Iran]. Tehran: Markaz-e Nashr-e Daneshgahi (1372 [1993]).

Khosravi first distinguishes between the sociology of agriculture and of the village. He argues that in the sociology of the village the concentration will be on the spaces and institutions of the village. The book consists of ten chapters and covers village population, the relationship between town and village, the political and legal atmosphere in the village, social relations, accommodation, rural culture, social stratification, family structure, features of the village community, and finally governmental institutions in the Iranian village. Khosravi argues that the mode of production in each village is influential in shaping its other features. For example, in his discussion about family, he observes that there is a difference in the structure of the family in villages with an agricultural base of production and in villages with production based on animal husbandry. He also takes into account the role of the geography and water resources. In the chapter about accommodation and architecture, Khosravi mentions that social relations are connected with water, and to understand rural architecture one has to take into account water, social relations, and production. Khosravi also pays attention to technological changes in production and their ramifications for rural societies. He explains that when new agricultural machines were brought to villages, they increased the unemployed population and contributed to immigration from villages to cities.