Taqi Azad Armaki & Gholamreza Ghaffari. Sociology of Generations in Iran [Jame’e shenasi nasli dar Iran]. Tehran: Pajuheshkade-ye Olum-e Ensani va Ejtema’I.
This book seeks to examine the relationships between different generations in Iran, whether there has been continuity, gap, or contradiction between them. The authors identify five generations, the pre-Revolution generation, the Revolution generation, the War generation, the generation with the memory of War, and the generation without the memory of War.
The sample is from Tehran and Kashan. While Tehran is the biggest and the most important city in Iran, Kashan is supposed to represent smaller Iranian cities. Authors use the chi-squared technique to analyze the data. The questionnaire has questions in different respects. One set of questions measures the inclination toward materialist and post-materialist values. The analysis of the answers to this set of questions suggests that for younger generations post-materialist values are the first priority and materialist values second, and the reverse for older generations. Regarding attitudes toward women, younger generations are more positive toward the participation of women outside the household. These new generations are also more open to new experiences , and are more willing to go beyond traditions. Nationalistic pride is also lower in the younger generation.
Another set of questions addresses the relationship between different generations and reference groups. The analysis of these questions suggests that a larger portion of older generations is inclined toward religious scholars, while the portions for religious intellectuals and academicians are larger for younger generations.The findings regarding religiosity indicate that generations are not different in terms of religious beliefs, but in terms of religious behavior there are significant differences. The rate of attendance in collective prayers and of paying religious taxes are lower for younger generations.
Despite the differences between generations in Iran, one can also observe similarities in terms of the importance of family, the importance of individualism, and the emphasis on individual freedom.